Beginner's Guide
    First Steps
    Input & Output
    Custom Types – Part 1
    Standard Library – Part 1
    Function Objects
    Standard Library – Part 2
    Code Organization
    Custom Types – Part 2
    Generic Programming
    Memory Management
    Software Design Basics

    Hello World Hello World Hello World

    Source File hello.cpp : File hello.cpp : hello.cpp

    #include <iostream> #include
    • this line will be replaced with the content of the file iostream
    • iostream is a header file in the compiler directory that provides input and output functionalities
    • #include "path/to/filename" ⇒ inserts the content of a file
    • #include <filename> ⇒ same, but searches for file in all include directories
    • happens before compilation ⇒ compiler does only see the already preprocessed file
    // our first program Comments

    Comments are ignored by the compiler.

    // single line comment

    /* C-style 
       multi-line comment */
    int main() main()
    • defines a function called "main"
    • every program starts by executing the main function
    • int is the only allowed return type for the main function (int refers to an integer (whole) number)
    • () is an empty parameter list
    • blocks of statements are enclosed in curly braces {}
    • statements are terminated by a semi-colon ;
     std::cout << "Hello World\n"; std::cout
    • this statement writes text to the console
    • std is the namespace of the standard library
    • cout (short for "character out") refers to the standard (console) output
    • "Hello World\n" is a string literal – a sequence of characters
    • \n is a special new line/line break character
    • the program terminates after executing the main function
    • it will automatically return 0 (indicating success) if no return statement is given
    • return codes other than 0 are interpreted as an error by the operating system executing the program

    Compiling hello.cpp : Compiling

    • C++ source code can't be run directly
    • C++ compiler translates source code into binary machine code that is understood by the computer hardware (CPU)
    • program that can be run = binary executable file containing machine code
    $ g++ hello.cpp –o sayhello
    $ ./sayhello
    Hello World!
    compile & link 
    run executable "sayhello"
    program output


    • Compiler Error = program not compilable, compiler will stop
    • Compiler Warning = program compilable, compiler will continue, but there is a problematic piece of code that might lead to runtime bugs

    • static = fixed at compile time (baked into the executable file, not changeable at runtime)
    • dynamic = changeable at runtime (possibly by user input)

    Compiler Flags

    g++ -std=c++17 -Wall -Wextra -Wpedantic input.cpp -o output

    -std=c++17 Sets compiler to the C++17 standard. Highly Recommended.
    • -Wall
    • -Wpedantic
    • -Wextra
    Enable compiler warnings. Highly recommended. These don't really activate all warnings, but rather the most important ones that don't produce too much (false positive) noise.
    -o <filename> Sets the name of the output (executable) file.

    It's 2021 – set your compiler to C++17 (or at least to C++14 if you have to use an older compiler).