Beginner's Guide
    First Steps
    Input & Output
    Custom Types – Part 1
    Standard Library – Part 1
    Function Objects
    Standard Library – Part 2
    Code Organization
    Custom Types – Part 2
    Generic Programming
    Memory Management
    Software Design Basics

    Function Call Mechanics Function Calls Function Calls

    Reminder: Memory Organisation Memory Organisation Memory

    How Function Calls Work How Calls Work How?

    No References To Locals No Ref To Locals Return Refs?

    Common Compiler Optimizations Compiler Optimizations Optimizations

    Modern C++ compilers perform several optimizations (especially at higher optimization levels -O2 and -O3) that make function calls much faster.

    Calls to small/short functions are replaced with the code of the function.

    int square (int x) { 
      return x * x; 
    int y = 0;
    std::cin >> y;
    std::cout << square(y);
    int y = 0;
    std::cin >> y;
    std::cout << (y*y);

    Inlining can only happen, if the compiler "sees" not only the function declaration but also its full definition, which is not necessarily the case, if we compile different parts of a program separately (more in chapter Separate Compilation ).

    This is one source of C++'s performance advantages. Inlining is a lot harder or sometimes impossible in many other languages like Java, C#, etc. with always-on polymorphism which means that all/most function/method calls can only be resolved at runtime.